Medical Genetics: Genetic Testing for Cancer Risk
Genetic tests available today can help predict your risk for some kinds of cancer, help you make healthcare decisions based on your cancer risk, and tell you if you have cancer-risk related genes that could be passed on in your family. But no genetic test can tell you for sure whether you'll get cancer.
You can get genetic testing by working with your healthcare provider. And there are companies that sell genetic test kits you can use at home. Learn about genetic testing before you have it done. It's important to know what you can and can't expect genetic testing to tell you. Most experts recommend working with a genetic counselor who can talk with you about the pros and cons of testing before it's done.
Who should be tested?
Should you be tested for genes that can show cancer risk? The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommends cancer genetic risk testing if:
You have a personal or family history that may be linked to genetic cause of cancer
The information you'll learn from a genetic test is useful – it can show a specific gene change that's been researched and understood
The test results will help with the diagnosis, treatment, or management of you or family members at risk for cancer
Genetic counseling will be done before and after genetic testing
About home test kits
Home test kits can be confusing. Some of them don't always give useful or even valid results. They may give you information that won’t help you prevent or treat any disease, but instead may just worry you. If you decide to buy a home test kit, make sure to tell your healthcare provider and plan to discuss the results with him or her. Your healthcare provider can help you:
Understand the results of the test
Compare the test results with family history and external factors
Get follow-up care if needed
Explain when there are no follow-up care options for certain results
Also check out the company offering the tests. Is a "free" test linked to product purchases from the company? Must you commit to a customized diet or supplement plan that's based on your results? Understand if and how they might use your results, too. Will they be shared with anyone? Protect your privacy.
Making the choice to be tested
It’s a big decision to have genetic testing. It can cause relief or stress. For example, a negative test result in a family with a known gene problem may give you a lot of relief about your personal cancer risk and the risk to your children. This can help you avoid unneeded medical procedures. A positive test result can help you prevent or manage a disease. It may help you make decisions about your cancer screening plan and steps you can take to help lower your cancer risk.
But getting your genetic test results can be confusing and stressful. A negative result may lead you to think you don’t have a higher risk for a certain kind of cancer, even though you may have an increased risk because of other factors. Or the test results may be unclear. You could have a mutation that hasn't been linked to cancer. This can be frustrating and could even lead to wrong health decisions.
Getting genetic counseling
It’s very important to have a good understanding of what the tests may or may not tell you before you have them. It's also important to understand the costs and if your insurance will pay for testing.
Before you decide to have genetic testing, talk with a genetic counselor. A genetic counselor can take you through pre-test and post-test counseling. He or she can help you understand the medical, social, and legal issues that can be linked to genetic test results. To find a genetic counselor, talk with your primary healthcare provider or contact your community hospital system.