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Vestibular Balance Disorder
What is vestibular balance disorder?
Dizziness and a spinning sensation
(vertigo) are symptoms of a vestibular balance disorder. Balance disorders can occur at
any age. But they are most common as you get older.
Your ear is a complex system of
bone and cartilage. Within it is a network of canals. These are called semicircular
canals. The canals are filled with fluid. The position of the fluid changes with
movement. A sensor in the ear then sends the information to your brain to add to your
sense of balance. These and other delicate pieces make up the vestibular system.
Certain things can affect the signals from any of the parts of the vestibular system causing symptoms.
What causes vestibular balance disorders?
Common causes of vestibular balance disorders include:
- Inner ear problems, such as poor circulation in the ear
- Calcium debris in your semicircular canals
- Problems rooted in your brain, such as traumatic brain injury
What are the symptoms of vestibular balance disorders?
The symptoms of a vestibular balance disorder include:
- Feeling off-balance
- Feeling as if you are floating or as if the world is spinning
- Blurred vision
- Falling or stumbling
Less common symptoms include:
- Changes in your heart's rhythm
How is a vestibular balance disorder diagnosed?
You may need to work with an ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT or
otolaryngologist). Many conditions can make you feel dizzy and lightheaded. Part of the
diagnosis may include ruling out other causes. After reviewing your health history, your
healthcare provider may do the following:
- Hearing exam
- Vision exam
- Blood tests
- Imaging tests of the head and
- Clinical tests of balance
- Look at your posture and movement,
using a structured exam called a posturography
- ENG (electronystagmography) and VNG (videonystagmography). These
are tests that record eye movements. They can help your provider find the cause of
your disorder. Your vision system is a major part of your sense of balance. The ENG
uses electrodes to watch eye movement. The VNG uses video cameras.
How is a vestibular balance disorder treated?
Treatment will depend on the cause of your balance disorder and may include:
- Treating any underlying causes. Depending on the cause, you may need antibiotics or antifungal treatments. These
can treat ear infections that are causing your balance disorder.
- Changes in lifestyle. You may be able to ease some symptoms with changes in diet and activity. This
includes quitting smoking or staying away from nicotine.
- Epley maneuver (canalith repositioning
maneuvers).These are a specialized series of head and chest movements. The goal is to
reposition particles in your semicircular canals so that they don’t trigger
- Surgery. When medicine and other therapies can't control your symptoms, you may need
surgery. The procedure depends on the underlying cause of the disorder. The goal is
to stabilize and fix inner ear function.
- Rehabilitation. If you struggle with vestibular balance disorders, you may need vestibular
rehabilitation or balance retraining therapy. This helps you move through your day
safely. A rehab specialist will help you learn how to cope with dizziness in your
daily life. You may need to learn better safety strategies and make adjustments
- Going up and down stairs
- Driving (ask your healthcare
provider when it will be safe for you to drive)
- Walking and exercising
- Using the bathroom
- Organizing your home to make
it safer, such as tightening handrails
- Changing your shoes or
clothing, such as wearing low-heeled shoes
- Changing your daily habits,
such as planning your day so that you won't be walking in the dark
- Learning how to use a cane or
What are possible complications of vestibular balance
Possible complications include:
- Injury from falling
- Reduced quality of life
Living with a vestibular balance disorder
The symptoms of vestibular balance
disorder can interfere with regular daily activities and your ability to drive, work, or
enjoy recreation activities. This can cause depression and frustration. Counseling can
help you learn to cope with the disorder and how it affects your lifestyle impacts.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Feeling lightheaded or dizzy occasionally happens to most people. If these sensations are frequent and affect your quality of life, contact your healthcare provider.
Key points about vestibular balance disorders
- Vestibular balance disorders can
affect your balance and make you feel disoriented.
- Common causes include inner ear problems, medicines, infections,
and traumatic brain injury.
- These disorders can occur at any age. But they are most common
as you get older.
- Treatment depends on the underlying
cause and can include medicine, rehabilitation, and lifestyle changes. You may need
surgery for symptoms that don't go away with other treatments.
- Talk with your healthcare provider if
you have symptoms of vertigo, dizziness, or hearing changes. These can mean you have
a vestibular balance disorder.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Online Medical Reviewer:
Ashutosh Kacker MD
Online Medical Reviewer:
Daphne Pierce-Smith RN MSN CCRC
Online Medical Reviewer:
Ronald Karlin MD
Date Last Reviewed:
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