What are nasal polyps?
Nasal polyps are abnormal, soft,
swollen, sac-like growths of inflamed tissue. They line the inside of your nose or your
The sinuses are a group of
air-filled spaces inside the bones of your face. They connect with the nasal cavity.
This is the large, air-filled space behind your nose. Normally these spaces are fairly
open, but nasal polyps can grow large enough to block them. This can cause trouble
Nasal polyps are a subgroup of
chronic rhinosinusitis. This is a condition where the nasal cavity and sinuses are
inflamed for more than 4 to 12 weeks. But not all people with this condition will
develop nasal polyps.
Other types of growths sometimes
form in the nasal cavity. Some of these types may be cancer. But true nasal polyps are
Nasal polyps are fairly common. Anyone can have them.
What causes nasal polyps?
Researchers are still learning
about the causes of nasal polyps. Underlying inflammation of your tissue plays some sort
of role. Nasal polyps are more common in people with these health conditions:
Certain genes may also help lead to
the development of nasal polyps. This is especially true of genes that play a role in
the immune system and inflammatory response. You may be more likely to have nasal polyps
if other members of your family have had them.
What are the symptoms of nasal polyps?
If you have nasal polyps, you may feel like you have a cold for months or longer. Some of your symptoms may be due to the nasal polyps. Others may result from the chronic rhinosinusitis that caused your polyps.
The most common symptoms of nasal polyps include:
Stuffy nose (nasal congestion)
Facial sinus fullness (but usually not pain)
Reduced sense of smell
Feeling blocked in your nose and having to breathe through your mouth
Unless you also have an infection,
you shouldn’t have symptoms such as fever or yellowish or greenish drainage from the
nose. Complications from nasal polyps may cause additional symptoms.
The symptoms of nasal polyps may
seem like other health conditions or problems. Always see your healthcare provider for
How are nasal polyps diagnosed?
Diagnosis begins with a complete
health history and physical exam. Your healthcare provider will examine your nose. He or
she may be able to see your polyps with a simple lighted tool.
Your provider might need more
information about your sinuses and nasal cavity. He or she might try to diagnose the
specific trigger of your polyps, such as certain allergies. You might need tests such
Nasal endoscopy. Your provider places
a long, flexible tube into your nose. The tube has a light on the end. This gives a
detailed view of your inner nose and your sinuses.
CT scan. This is done if the diagnosis isn’t clear. X-rays pass through your nose and create images that are analyzed by a computer.
MRI. This is done if more imaging is needed. An MRI machine uses a magnetic field to make an image of structures inside your body.
Allergy testing. This is done to diagnose allergies.
Additional tests. Other tests may be done to diagnose the area and airflow of the nasal cavity.
Polyp biopsy. This is often only done
if needed to rule out a cancerous growth. Your provider removes your polyp, or takes
a sample. It is tested to see if it is cancer.
A healthcare provider who is a general practitioner might first diagnose you. Many people with nasal polyps will eventually need to see an ear, nose, and throat specialist (otolaryngologist).
How are nasal polyps treated?
Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It
will also depend on how severe the condition is.
Treatment aims to reduce
inflammation, as well as the size of your polyps. Healthcare providers often start
treatment with steroid medicines breathed in (inhaled) through the nose. These medicines
can decrease the inflammation at the root of the problem. People who don’t respond to
this might need steroid medicines taken by mouth.
Other treatments for nasal polyps
Medicines to help decrease
Antibiotics to help reduce polyp
Daily rinsing of the sinuses with a
Antihistamines, to reduce allergic
Allergen immunotherapy and removal of
allergens, if possible
Aspirin desensitization therapy, if
You may still have symptoms despite
these other therapies. If this is the case, surgery may help. Surgery does often get rid
of most symptoms. But the polyps may come back within a few months to a few years. It is
important to address the underlying cause of your nasal polyps to help prevent this from
happening. After your surgery, you may need to take inhaled nasal steroids to help keep
the polyps from returning.
What are possible complications of nasal polyps?
Nasal polyps sometimes cause problems. Sinus infections are common complications. These infections may come back often and become long-lasting (chronic). If you get a bacterial infection, you may need treatment with antibiotics.
Less commonly, nasal polyps cause
problems from more dangerous infections such as:
Infection of the tissue around the
brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
Infection around the tissue around the eye (orbital cellulitis)
Infection of the sinus bones (osteitis)
Your healthcare provider will watch your symptoms carefully to make sure you don’t have these problems. If you have one of these complications, you might need antibiotics. In very rare cases, you might need surgery as well.
Very large nasal polyps can also sometimes block your nasal passageway during sleep. This is called obstructive sleep apnea. This might make you very tired and drowsy the next day. It’s important to let your healthcare provider know if this is one of your symptoms.
What can I do to prevent nasal polyps?
No one knows how to prevent nasal polyps from first forming. Therapy aimed at the cause can help keep your polyps in check. It may also help prevent them from coming back if you have had surgery. Following all your healthcare provider’s treatment instructions can help.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Call your healthcare provider if
your symptoms don’t get better with a few days of treatment. Also call right away if you
have any signs of possible problems such as:
Key points about nasal polyps
Nasal polyps are soft, swollen, sac-like growths of inflamed tissue. They line the inside of your nose or your sinuses.
They are a type of chronic rhinosinusitis. This is an inflammation of the nasal cavity and sinuses.
True nasal polyps are not cancer.
Certain health conditions are more
common in people with nasal polyps. These include asthma and aspirin
Medicines and staying away from
allergens may help decrease your symptoms. Surgery may also be needed to remove your
Nasal polyps sometimes cause rare and
serious problems, such as meningitis.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Online Medical Reviewer:
Ashutosh Kacker MD
Online Medical Reviewer:
Daphne Pierce-Smith RN MSN CCRC
Online Medical Reviewer:
Marianne Fraser MSN RN
Date Last Reviewed:
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