AIDS-Related Lymphoma in Children
What is AIDS-related lymphoma in
AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer called non-Hodgkin
have a higher risk forthis
cancer. AIDS is a disease that weakens the immune system. AIDS raises
the risk for
infection and for long-term
(chronic) diseases, such
AIDS-related lymphoma grows in the white blood cells of the lymphatic system. The
lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps
diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also
fluids in different parts of the body. The lymphatic system includes:
is a clear
fluid that contains
vessels. These are tiny tubes that carry lymph fluid
over the body.
- Lymphocytes. These are a type of white blood cell that fight infections and disease.
nodes. These are small bean-shaped organs.
connected by lymph vessels.Andthey
filter the lymph fluid as it moves around the body.
- Other organs
lymphatic system includes the bone marrow where blood is made.
includes the spleen, thymus, tonsils, and digestive tract.
with the lymphatic system, AIDS-related lymphoma
brain and spinal cord (central nervous
It can also affect
lining of body
2 main types
of AIDS-related lymphoma are:
- Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
- Burkitt lymphoma
grow very fast and can grow outside the lymphatic system.
What causes AIDS-related lymphoma in a child?
is the virus that causes
AIDS. People are often
infected with HIV through contact with the blood or other body fluids
of someone with HIV or AIDS. In children, this
happens during pregnancy, labor and delivery, or breastfeeding with a
mother who has HIV or AIDS.
HIV virus attacks the body's immune
This makes it harderfor
the immune system to fight cancers and infections. People with AIDS have an increased
and other types of
also at a high risk for
Which children are at risk for AIDS-related lymphoma?
All people with
HIV, no matter
at risk forAIDS-related
What are the symptoms of AIDS-related lymphoma in a child?
child may have many different symptoms. It depends on the type of lymphoma and where itis.
Symptoms may include:
- Swollen, painless lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
- Trouble breathing
- Loud breathing or wheezing
- Night sweats
- Unexplained weight loss
- Fever with no known reason
- Trouble swallowing
- Swelling in the head or neck
- Swelling and pain in the belly (abdomen)
The symptoms of AIDS-related lymphoma can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is AIDS-related lymphoma diagnosed in a child?
your child has
he or she will be checked often for
that might be signs of AIDS-related lymphoma. Your child's healthcare provider will ask
about your child's health history and symptoms.
A physical exam
child may need tests
- Blood and urine tests.Blood and urine samples are tested in a lab.
- Tissue and lymph node
tissue samplesare taken
from the lymph nodes or other body tissue. They’re checked with a microscope for
shows the heart, lungs, and other parts of the chest.
- CT scan.This
uses a series of X-rays and a computer to make detailed pictures of the inside of the
body. Your child may drink a contrast dye or it may be injected into a vein. The dye
helps show more details.
- MRI scan. An MRI uses
large magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed pictures of the inside of
the body. Contrast dye may be injected into your child's vein. It helps show details
test is used to check the brain and spinal cord. Or it may be used if the results of
an X-ray or CT
scan are not
is also called sonography. Sound waves and a computer are used to make pictures of
blood vessels, tissues, and organs.
marrow aspiration or biopsy. Bone marrow is found in the center of
some bones. It’s where blood cells are made. A small amount of bone marrow fluid canbe
out. This is called aspiration. Or solid bone marrow tissue may be
taken. This is called a core biopsy. Bone marrow
taken from the
back of the
hip bone. This test may be done to see if cancer cells have reached
the bone marrow.
(spinal tap). A thin
the bones in
back andinto the
spinal canal. This is the area around the spinal cord. This is done to
see if there
the brain and spinal
A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is
sent for testing. CSF is the fluid around the brain and spinal cord.
- Pleural or peritoneal
fluid sampling. Fluid is removed from around the lungsor
The fluid is checked for cancer cells.
of diagnosing cancer is called staging. Staging is the process of seeing if the cancer
has spread, and where it has spread. Staging also helps to decide
options. There are different
used for NHL.But
most range from stage 1 to stage
4 is cancer that has spread to parts of the body that are not
the lymphatic system.
with your child's healthcare provider about the stage of your child's
cancer and what
is AIDS-related lymphoma treated in a child?
Treatment will depend on the type and stage of lymphoma. It will also depend on:
- When your child first
treatment for HIV/AIDS
- If the cancer has spread to the brain or spinal cord
the cancer cells
Treatment may include any of the below:
(chemo). These are medicines that kill cancer cells
or stop them from growing.
the main treatment for
therapy. These are high-energy X-rays or other types of radiationused to kill cancer cells.This
may be used if lymphoma has spread to the
may be used
treat tumors that are causing
pressing on nerves or breathing tubes.
is a type of targeted therapy
to focus on and kill the cancer
cells. It causes littleharm
to healthy cells.
- High-dose chemotherapy
with a stem cell transplant. Young blood cells (stem cells) are taken
from the child or from someone else. This is followed by
damage. After the chemotherapy, the stem cells are replaced.
- Supportive care.Treatment
can cause side
Supportive care is
used for pain, fever, infection, and
nausea and vomiting.
trials. Ask your child's healthcare provider if there are any treatments being tested
that may work well for your
new treatments are only available in clinical trials.
Treating the HIV infection itself is also an important part of therapy. Your child will be given antiretroviral treatment (ART) to control the virus.
Your child will need follow-up care during and after treatment to:
- Check on your child's response to the treatment
- Manage the side effects of treatment
- See if cancer
the HIV under control
possible complications of AIDS-related lymphoma in a child?
Possible complications depend on the type and stage of the lymphoma,
as well as the
- Increased risk of infection
bleeding and bruising
- Heart disease
- Lung problems
- Increased chance of growing other cancers
a baby (infertility)
- Nausea and vomiting
- Poor appetite
- Sores in the mouth
- Hair loss
about what you should watch
what can be done to help prevent complications.
can I help my child
You can help your child manage his or her treatment in many ways. For example:
- Your child may have trouble eating. A dietitian may be able to help.
- Your child may be very tired. He or she will need to balance rest and activity. Encourage your child to get some exercise. This is good for overall health. And it may help to lessen tiredness.
emotional support for your child. Find a counselor or
child support group
sure your child
to all follow-up appointments.
When should I call my child’s healthcare provider?
Call the healthcare provider if your child has:
- Symptoms that get worse
- New symptoms
- Side effects from treatment
Key points about AIDS-related lymphoma in a child
- AIDS-related lymphoma a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
- It may affect the lymphatic system, brain and spinal cord, and other parts of the body.
- Treatment depends on the type, stage, and other factors. It may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem-cell transplant.
- Treating the HIV is an important of your child's health.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why
a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know
the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
how you can contact your child’s provider after office
This is important if
child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
Online Medical Reviewer:
Kim Stump-Sutliff RN MSN AOCNS
Online Medical Reviewer:
Date Last Reviewed:
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